Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna of Himachal Pradesh

Write a note on Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna of Himachal Pradesh. (4 marks) 

HPAS,2023 GS-1

Himachal Pradesh, nestled in the northern part of India, boasts a significant share of the nation's hydroelectric resources, comprising approximately twenty-five percent of the country's total potential. The state has the capacity to generate a staggering 27,436 MW of hydroelectric power through the implementation of diverse projects across its five perennial river basins.

Hydroelectric power

Hydroelectric power is a type of electricity generated by turbines that convert the potential energy of falling or fast-flowing water into mechanical energy. The process of generating hydroelectric power involves collecting or storing water at a higher elevation and leading it downward through large pipes or tunnels (penstocks) to a lower elevation. The difference in elevation between the two points is called the head. At the end of its journey down the pipes, the falling water causes turbines to rotate. These turbines, in turn, drive generators that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Hydroelectric power plants are usually located in dams that impound rivers, creating a higher head as much as possible.

Hydroelectric Potential and Utilization

Out of the total hydroelectric potential in the state, only 10,519 MW has been harnessed to date. Remarkably, 7.6% of this capacity is under the control of the Himachal Pradesh Government, while the remainder falls under the purview of the Central Government. Recognizing the pivotal role of hydroelectricity in meeting the escalating demands for power in industries, agriculture, and rural electrification, the state government has accorded the highest priority to its development.

Power Dynamics and Income Generation

Hydroelectric generation stands as a cornerstone of income for Himachal Pradesh, as it not only caters to the state's needs but also supplies electricity to other regions. Despite the abundant resources, the state faces challenges, especially during winter, when reduced water flow in rivers and heightened lighting and heating loads lead to potential power shortages exceeding ten lakh units per day. With increased industrialization and rural electrification, this figure is anticipated to rise further.

Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna

At the forefront of harnessing hydroelectric power in Himachal Pradesh is the Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna. Operated by the state-owned Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board, this hydroelectric project stands as a testament to innovative engineering and progressive energy solutions.


  • Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna is a project located on the Bhaba River in the Bhaba Valley of Himachal Pradesh(kinnaur), India. 
  • It is situated at an impressive elevation of 2,450 meters above mean sea level, making it the highest project of its kind in the country. 
  • The project was developed by Continental Construction Projects Ltd. (CCPL) and completed in 1990, costing an estimated Rs 167 crore (US$30.93 million).
  • One of the notable features of this project is that it houses Asia's only underground switchyard. 
  • The project comprises three 40-MW turbine-generators, which are housed within its powerhouse. 
  • The project also includes a 23-meter-high concrete diversion dam/barrage, an intake structure with under sluices, spill weir and gates.
  • de-silting tanks with underground silt ejecting pipes, a storage reservoir, cofferdams, and other appurtenant works.
  • The Bhaba River, which is a tributary of the Sutlej River, flows through the Bhaba Valley and has a significant impact on the region's topography. 
  • The project spans over 12 kilometers of tunnels and includes various supporting structures. 

Overall, Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna is a remarkable project that showcases India's engineering prowess.

Benefits of HydroPower

In the ever-evolving landscape of renewable energy, hydropower stands as the oldest and most influential player, dating back to the 19th century. As per the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), its installed capacity surpasses that of all other renewable sources combined.

  1. It's clean and sustainable
  2. It's a flexible resource
  3. It stabilizes the power grid
  4. It reduces the risk of flooding
  5. It helps reclaim marshy areas
  6. It enhances tourist areas and water sports
  7. It protects biodiversity

In conclusion, as Himachal Pradesh continues to unlock its hydroelectric potential, projects like Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna stand as beacons of sustainable energy and engineering excellence, contributing not only to the state's power needs but also shaping the future of energy in India.

Keywords: Hydroelectric power, Himachal Pradesh, Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna, Bhaba River, Power Generation,HPAS 2023,hpas mains,HIMACHAL gK,RenewableEnergy,SustainableFuture ,GreenTech 

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